Journal of World Transport Policy & Practice. Vol. 21, No. 1



This issue of January 2015 marks the start of our third dec­ade of publication and it is appropriate to use this occasion to africa cyclists bus bit onlythank the hundreds of people who have written articles for the journal over the last 20 years and carried out the onerous task of external reviewer and kept us on our toes with comments, criticism and suggestions. I am especially grateful to the support and encourage­ment I have been given by Eric Britton in France, Helmut Holzapfel in Germany and Paul Tranter in Australia. When I think of this team of wonderful people I know that sustainable transport will very soon migrate from the world of rhetoric to the world of delivery.

I also want to thank Jeff Kenworthy (Curtin University in Australia but now working in Frankfurt) who in addition to sending us a steady flow of truly excellent articles has kept up a running commentary on world events and was instrumental in success­fully connecting this journal with a funder and a partner (announced below).

A huge vote of thanks is also due to Rob Clow who converts the material we ac­cept for publication into a high quality final form for loading on our web site.

This issue also marks a very significant change in the way the journal is funded. We are very pleased indeed to announce that we have received a small grant from the Helen and William Mazer Foundation in New Jersey in the USA and have es­tablished a link with the “Transportation Choices for Sustainable Communities Re­search and Policy Institute” (TCSC) in Cali­fornia.

We would like to use this first editorial of 2015 to put on record our thanks to the Helen & William Mazer Foundation. We are very grateful indeed for their financial support.

The journal is very proud of its editorial independence and that continues to be the case but we felt the need for external funding to develop our web site and invest in other technical improvements and that is now in place. Equally we felt the need to have a link with the US based policy-ori­ented TCSC to bring a strong North Ameri­can dimension to our well-established links with European, Indian and Australian organisations. The TCSC mission state­ment strongly resonates with our own ob­jectives:

Our aim is to advance understand­ing and support for sustainable trans­portation as an essential component of livable communities and cities. The Institute studies and evaluates the ways and means of creating more life-affirming transportation systems and disseminates this information to both the public and decision makers.


africa cyclists bus

Cover photo Vol. 20.1

This issue

In this issue we have three articles that all make substantial and fundamental contri­butions to a better understanding of sus­tainable transport and evidence-based de­cision- taking.

Uneb Gazdar and his colleagues in Kara­chi (Pakistan) reveal a great deal about the state of play in transport choices and transport challenges in a very large, fast growing city in that country. It is very im­portant indeed that the very special geo­graphical, cultural and decision-making contexts of cities like Karachi are explored and linked to transport problems and solu­tions in the same way that this paper has achieved. Karachi is large, fast-growing, unplanned and subject to very serious traffic safety problems. All these problems are solvable but require a step change in the quality and quantity of pedestrian, cy­cling and public transport facilities and like many other mega cities Karachi has still not managed to make this step change.

Karel Martens and his colleagues in the Netherlands take a new approach to car sharing and in addition to reviewing the many benefits of shifting personally owned vehicle use to shared use show that in­creasing the supply of car share vehicles can increase the use made of them even in areas where the car share idea is al­ready well-established. This is important because yet again it shows that the potential for behavioural change towards sus­tainable modes is much bigger than many decision-takers assume. We can only hope that one day the concept of large scale behavioural change will take root in the priorities of decision-takers so we can look forward to an urban area functioning very well indeed on a 90-10 pattern (90% of all trips every day by bike, on foot, pub­lic transport and car share and 10% by the personally owned vehicle).

Chris Gilham and Chris Rissel in Australia report on a detailed statistical study of cy­cling rates, fatalities and injuries amongst young cyclists in the USA. The analysis goes to the heart of the global debate about compulsory helmet wearing and the degree to which it contributes to public health outcomes/does not assist in achiev­ing public health gains. The decline in cy­cling participation rates for children aged 7-17 in the period 1995-2012 is very wor­rying indeed when there is a global rec­ognition that increased cycling rates have so much to offer to the health of cyclists, reductions in pollutants and greenhouse gases as transport choices switch away from the car to the bike and reduced con­gestion. The authors conclude that com­pulsory helmet wearing may have contrib­uted to decreased cycling rates “without improvements in cycling safety at a popu­lation level”. This is a very important pub­lic policy contribution given the desire of many jurisdictions to “solve” cycling safety problems by focussing on quick fixes rather than by addressing the fundamental prob­lems of reducing traffic volume, reducing traffic speed, high quality infrastructure and enforcement to eliminate anti-social driving behaviour.

The flow of high quality material support­ing and promoting a shift in political and funding priorities towards sustainable transport continues unabated as does the flow of truly crass decisions about national transport priorities and funding that lack intelligence, vision and concern for future generations. Recent events in the UK con­tinue to mark out the steady decline in the quality of public decision-taking and an in­crease in the importance of ideology and the ability to ignore evidence. The deci­sion to spend £15 billion on increases in road capacity1 flies in the face of many years of careful research and evidence-building that shows the futility of such pol­icies when compared to policies that shift the system in the direction of the 90-10 future.

John Whitelegg


 * The full text of WTPP 21.1 available at

*  Earlier editions  available at and via World Streets at

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Editorial                                                                                                                  3

Abstracts and Keywords                                                                                   5

Transport Issues in Karachi: Recommendations for Public Transport System

Uneb Gazdar, Mir Shabbar Alia, Raza Ali Khanb                                 6

Broadening the market for carshare? Results of a pilot project in the Netherlands

Karel Martens, William Sierzchula, Sander Pasman                         17

Children’s cycling participation, injuries, fatalities and helmet legislation in the United States

Gillham C, Rissel C                                                                                            30

Eliminating serious injury and death from road transport. A crisis of complacency.

Johnston, I.R., Muir, C., Howard, E.W. (2014)    Reviewed by John Whitelegg         37

Transportation Choices for Sustainable Communities Research & Policy Institute

(Transportation Choices)                                                                                 40

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Abstracts And Keywords

Transport Issues in Karachi: Recom­mendations for Public Transport Sys­tem

Uneb Gazdar, Mir Shabbar Alia, Raza Ali Khanb

Abstract: Karachi has experienced major surges in population due to the migration of people and urbanization. This growth in population has not been complement­ed with appropriate planning, which has been evident in the transportation sector as well. This paper discussed in detail the current situation of public transport in the city. The outcome of this research consists of identification of major problem areas and recommendations to be adapted for integrated improvement of the transporta­tion system in light of various surveys and studies.

Key Words: Public transport, Karachi, Policy


Broadening the market for carshare? Results of a pilot project in the Neth­erlands

Karel Martens, William Sierzchula, Sander Pasman

Abstract: This paper describes a pilot project consisting of a substantial increase in the number of carshare vehicles in a neighborhood in the city of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The goal was to explore, first, the impact on the demand for carshare services and, second, the impact on the socio-economic composition of the new carshare members. The results show a substantial increase in the number of car-share members, but little proof for the di­versification hypothesis. While households interested in carshare membership had a different socio-economic profile than ex­isting carshare members, the households that eventually became carshare mem­bers more closely resembled the existing members.

Key Words: carshare, supply-side ap­proach, diversification, experiment, the Netherlands


Children’s cycling, participation, injuries, fatalities and hel­met legislation in the United States

Gillham C, Rissel C

Abstract: Studies of child and teenage cyclist injury rates in the United States (US) consistently report a downturn since mandatory bicycle helmet laws were intro­duced in various states and municipalities during the 1990s and progressively since. However, the decrease in children’s injury rates may be related to decreases in chil-dren’s cycling participation. This study ex­amines US children’s cycling participation since 1995, children’s injuries and concus­sion injuries and, as a proxy for injuries, children’s cycling fatalities by states with bicycle helmet laws and those without. Data examined are publicly available and include the US Census Bureau report on Participation in Selected Sports Activities, the US Consumer Product Safety Commis­sion National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

Cycling participation by children aged 7-17 years declined significantly from 1995 to 2012, which was matched by a decline in all-body injuries. Concussion injuries did not decline despite some form of helmet legislation being gradually introduced for children in 45% of jurisdictions across the US. There was no reduction in cycling fa­talities among children in those states with helmet laws compared with those without such laws. Helmet legislation may have contributed to the decline in children’s cy­cling participation over time, but without improvements in cycling safety at a popu­lation level.

Keywords: Cycling, bicycle helmet, legis­lation, children, injury

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About the editor:

Managing Director of Eco-Logica, John Whitelegg is Visiting Professor of Sustainable Transport at f1fa6-ws-pic-whiteleggLiverpool John Moores University, Professor of Sustainable Development at the Stockholm Environment Institute, and founder and editor of the Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice. Research interests encompass transport and the environment, definition of sustainable transport systems and a sustainable built environment, development of transport in third world cities focusing on the relationships between sustainability and human health, implementation of environmental strategies within manufacturing and service industry and development of environmental management standards. He has published widely on these topics. John is active in the Green party of England and Wales and is the national spokesperson on sustainable development.

About the journal:

World Transport Policy & Practice is a quarterly journal which provides a high quality medium for original and creative work in world transport.

WTPP has a philosophy based on the equal importance of academic rigour and a strong commitment to ideas, policies and practical initiatives that will bring about a reduction in global dependency on cars, lorries and aircraft.

WTPP has a commitment to sustainable transport which embraces the urgent need to cut global emissions of carbon dioxide, to reduce the amount of new infrastructure of all kinds and to highlight the importance of future generations, the poor, those who live in degraded environments and those deprived of human rights by planning systems that put a higher importance on economic objectives than on the environment and social justice.

WTPP embraces a different approach to science and through science to publishing. This view is based on an honest evaluation of the track record of transport planning, engineering and economics. All too often, these interrelated disciplines have embraced quantitative, elitist or mechanistic views of society, space and infrastructure and have eliminated people from the analysis.

To help it to reach a wide readership, encompassing advocates and activists as well as academics and advisers, WTPP is available free of charge.

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World Streets: About the editor: 

Eric Britton
13, rue Pasteur. Courbevoie 92400 France

Bio: Founding editor of World Streets (1988), Eric Britton is an American political scientist, teacher, occasional consultant, and sustainability activist who has observed, learned, taught and worked on missions and advisory assignments on all continents. In the autumn of 2019, he committed his remaining life work to the challenges of aggressively countering climate change and specifically greenhouse gas emissions emanating from the mobility sector. He is not worried about running out of work. Further background and updates: @ericbritton | | #fekbritton | | and | Contact: | +336 508 80787 (Also WhatApp) | Skype: newmobility.)

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