Thinking on Equity/Transport: Todd Litman, Canada

no excuses sir

We are inviting comments and background information on this our central concept behind this project, i.e., what is this thing we call transportation equity all about? We are looking for a variety of views and perspectives on our topic and not some kind of warm and glass-eyed unanimity. If we cannot handle contradictions and fuzziness, then we are not about to make headway on a challenge of this level of complexity. The following valuable contribution and bibliography comes in from Todd Litman, executive director of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute in Victoria Canada.

transportation equity - todd liman cover 12jun14

– – – > Click HERE for full 52 page report. (Further background at


Equity refers to the fairness with which impacts (benefits and costs) are distributed. Transportation planning decisions often have significant equity impacts. Transport equity analysis can be difficult because there are several types of equity, many potential impacts to consider, various ways to measure impacts, and may possible ways to categorize people. This report provides practical guidance for evaluating transportation equity. It defines various types of equity and equity impacts, and describes practical ways to incorporate equity evaluation and objectives in transport planning.

Introduction: Evaluating transportation equity

It is true that transportation equity can be evaluated in various ways and that special interest groups often use equity concerns to advance their own agenda, but it tends to be an important concern in transport policy and
planning decision-making, and there is a good body of literature on transport equity analysis.

There are three major categories of transport equity:

1. Horizontal Equity (also called fairness) is concerned with whether each individual or group is treated equally, assuming that their needs and abilities are comparable. It suggests that people with comparable incomes and needs should receive an equal share of public resources and benefits, and bear an equal burden of public costs. It implies that costs should be borne by users unless a subsidy is specifically justified (i.e., the “user pays principle”).

2. Vertical Equity. With Regard to Income considers the allocation of costs between different income classes, assuming that public policies should favor people who are economically disadvantaged. Policies that provide a proportionally greater benefit to lower-income groups are called progressive, while those that make lower-income people relatively worse off are called regressive.

3. Vertical Equity With Regard to Mobility Need and Ability considers whether a transportation system provides adequate service to people who have special transportation needs (i.e., they are transportation disadvantaged). It justifies facility design features and special mobility services that provide access to people with disabilities. It suggests that public
subsidies should be used to provide Basic Access to transportation disadvantaged people.

Equity analysis is complicated by the fact that there are many types of impacts to consider and people can be grouped in various ways. A particular policy may seem equitable and justified when evaluated one way but not in another. It is therefore important that decision-makers understand these different perspectives and measurement units. I agree with Gabe that road
pricing is often portrayed as regressive and therefore inequitable, although it is generally more equitable than other road funding options, particularly if there are good alternatives to driving. This is why most experts argue that a portion of road pricing revenues should be used to improve transport options.

– – – > Click HERE for full 52 page report

References and Information Resources

The following has been extracted from the report to provide easy one click access to this key bibliography .


AARP (2005), Livable Communities: An Evaluation Guide, AARP Public Policy Institute (


AARP (2009), The Road Ahead: AARP Survey on Transportation in Vermont, American Association for Retired Persons (; at


Access Exchange International ( is a non-profit organization that promotes improved access to public transportation for disabled persons in developing countries.


ADA Homepage (, by the U.S. Department of Transportation, provides information on implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act.


Alan Altshuler (2013), “Equity as a Factor in Surface Transportation Politics,” Access 42, Spring, pp. 2-9; at


APHA (2010), The Hidden Health Costs of Transportation: Backgrounder, American Public Health Association (; at


Qureshi Intikhab Ahmed, Huapu Lu and Shi Ye (2008), “Urban Transportation and Equity: A Case Study of Beijing and Karachi,” Transportation Research A, Vol. 42, Issue 1 (, January, pp. 125-139.


Heather Allen (2008), Sit Next To Someone Different Every Day – How Public Transport Contributes To Inclusive Communities, Thredbo Conference (; at


Rahaf Alsnih and Peter R. Stopher (2003), “Environmental Justice Applications in Transport: The International Perspective,” Handbook of Transport and the Environment, Elsevier (, pp. 565-584.


Anvita Arora and Geetam Tiwari (2007), A Handbook for Socio-Economic Impact Assessment (SEIA) of Future Urban Transport (FUT) Projects, Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP), Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi; at


Linda Bailey (2004), Stranded Without Options, Surface Transportation Policy Project (; at


Rahman Paul Barter and Tamim Raad (2000), Taking Steps: A Community Action Guide to People-Centred, Equitable and Sustainable Urban Transport, SUSTRAN Network (; at


Judith Bell and Larry Cohen (2009), The Transportation Prescription: Bold New Ideas for Healthy, Equitable Transportation Reform in America, PolicyLink and the Prevention Institute Convergence Partnership (


Edward Beimborn and Robert Puentes (2003), Highways and Transit: Leveling the Playing Field in Federal Transportation Policy, Brookings Institute (


Scott Bernstein, Carrie Makarewicz and Kevin McCarty (2005), Driven to Spend: Pumping Dollars Out Of Our Households And Communities, STPP (


Evelyn Blumenberg and Gregory Pierce (2012), “Automobile Ownership and Travel By The Poor,” Transportation Research Record 2320, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 28-36; summary at


BLS (Annual reports), Consumer Expenditure Surveys, Bureau of Labor Statistics (


E. Blumenberg and P. Ong (2001), Cars, Buses, and Jobs: Welfare Program Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles, TRB Paper 01-3068; at


BTS (Annual reports), Federal Subsidies to Passenger Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics (


Robert Bullard and Glenn Johnson (1997), Just Transportation; Dismantling Race & Class Barriers to Mobility, New Society Publishing (Gabriola Island, BC).


Daniel Carlson and Zachary Howard (2010), Impacts Of VMT Reduction Strategies On Selected Areas and Groups, Washington State Department of Transportation (; at


Robert B. Case (2011), “Accessibility-Based Factors of Travel Odds: Performance Measures for Coordination of Transportation and Land Use to Improve Nondriver Accessibility,” Transportation Research Record 2242, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 106-113; at


David Caubel (2004), Methodologies And Tools To Evaluate Issues Relating To Land-Use And / Or Social Aspects Of Urban Transportation Policies: An Accessibility Concept Linked Approach, World Conference on Transportation Research (


CBPP (2007), Climate-Change Policies Can Treat Poor Families Fairly and Be Fiscally Responsible, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (


CBT (2012), Transport, Accessibility and Social Exclusion, Campaign for Better Transport (; at


CDOT (2003), Environmental Justice In Colorado’s Statewide and Regional Planning Process Guidebook, Colorado Department of Transportation (


Center for the Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE), ( is a specialized research organization at the London School of Economics dealing with social equity issues.


Don Chen (1996), Getting A Fair Share: An Analysis of Federal Transportation Spending, Surface Transportation Policy Project (


CTS (2006), About Accessibility: Access to Destinations Study, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota (; at


CTS (2010), How Light-Rail Transit Improves Job Access for Low-Wage Workers: A Transitway Impacts Research Program (TIRP) Research Brief, Center for Transportation Studies, Univesity of Minnesota (; at


Graham Currie, et al. (2009), Investigating Links Between Transport Disadvantage, Social Exclusion And Well-Being In Melbourne –Preliminary Results, Transport Policy Vol. 16, Is. 3, July, Pages 97-105; at


Graham Currie and Alexa Delbose (2010), Modelling the Social and Psychological Impacts of Transport Disadvantaged,” Transportation, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 953-966; abstract at


DFID (2003), Social Benefits in Transport Planning, UK Department for International Development (; at (


DFID (2013), Social Dimensions of Transport –A Resource for Social Impact Appraisals, UK Department for International Develoment (; at


Lynn Dobbs (2005), “Wedded to the Car: Women, Employment and the Importance of Private Transport,” Transport Policy, Vol. 12, No. 3 (, May, pp. 266-278.


Jago Dodson, Matthew I. Burke, Rick Evans and Neil Sipe (2011), “How Will We Get There? Analyzing Access of Low-Socioeconomic-Status Households to Destinations in Australian Cities,” Transportation Research Record 2242, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 90-97; at


Environmental Justice Website (, by the USDOT, provides information on methods for incorporating environmental justice into transport planning.


Environmental Justice And Transportation Website ( is developing tools to incorporate equity analysis into regional transportation planning.


Reid Ewing and Shima Hamidi (2014), Measuring Urban Sprawl and Validating Sprawl Measures, Metropolitan Research Center at the University of Utah for the National Cancer Institute, the Brookings Institution and Smart Growth America (; at


Yingling Fan and Arthur Huang (2011), How Affordable is Transportation? An Accessibility-Based Evaluation, CTS Report 11-12, Transitway Impacts Research Program, Center for Transportation Studies (; at


FHWA (1996), Public Involvement Techniques for Transportation Decisionmaking, Federal Highway Administration, (


FHWA (1997), 1997 Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study, USDOT ( Additional data and appendices were added in 2000.


FHWA (2008), Income-Based Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing: A Primer, Office of Transportation Management, Federal Highway Administration (; at


FHWA and FTA (2013), Transportation & Environmental Justice: Effective Practices, Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, FHWA-EP-02-016 (


David J. Forkenbrock and Lisa A. Schweitzer (1997), Environmental Justice and Transportation Investment Policy, Public Policy Center, University of Iowa (; at


David J. Forkenbrock and Glen E. Weisbrod (2001), Guidebook for Assessing the Social and Economic Effects of Transportation Projects, NCHRP Report 456, Transportation Research Board, National Academy Press (; at


David J. Forkenbrock and Jason Sheeley (2004), Effective Methods for Environmental Justice Assessment, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 532, Transportation Research Board (; at


Geoffrey Fruin and P.S. Sriraj (2005), “Approach of Environmental Justice to Evaluate the Equitable Distribution of a Transit Capital Improvement Program,” Transportation Research Record 1924, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 139-145; summary at


Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank and Richard Jackson (2004), Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building For Healthier Communities, Island Press (


P. Gaffron, J. P. Hine and F. Mitchell (2001), The Role Of Transport On Social Exclusion In Urban Scotland: Literature Review, Scottish Executive Central Research Unit (


Shengyi Gao and Robert A. Johnston (2009), “Public vs. Private Mobility for Low Income Households: Transit Improvements vs. Increased Car Ownership in the Sacramento Region,” Transportation Research Record 2125 (, pp. 9-15; at


Aaron Golub (2010), “Welfare and Equity Impacts of Gasoline Price Changes under Different Public Transportation Service Levels,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 1-21; at


Krista Gullo, et al. (2008), “A Model of Social Inequity and Accessibility in Detroit,” Personal Mobility and Global Climate Change, Future Research Directions in Sustainable Mobility and Accessibility, SMART, University of Michigan (


John Hamburg, Larry Blair and David Albright (1995), “Mobility as a Right,” Transportation Research Record 1499, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 52-55.


Kerry Hamilton, Linda Jenkins, Frances Hodgson and Jeff Turner (2005), Promoting Gender Equality in Transport, Equal Opportunities Commission (


A. Hay and E. Trinder (1991), “Concept of Equity, Fairness, and Justice Expressed by Local Transport Policy Makers,” Environment and Planning C, Vol. 9, pp. 453-465.


Julian Hine and Margaret Grieco (2003), “Scatters And Clusters In Time And Space: Implications For Delivering Integrated And Inclusive Transport,” Transport Policy, Vol. 10, pp. 299–306; at


Julian Hine and Fiona Mitchell (2001), “Better for Everyone? Travel Experiences and Transport Exclusion,” Urban Studies, Vol. 38, No. 2, 319–332; at


David Hodge (1995), “My Fair Share: Equity Issues in Urban Transportation,” in The Geography of Urban Transportation, Susan Hanson (Ed.) Guilford Press (New York).


Michael Iacono and Adeel Lari (2006), Transportation Finance, Congestion, And Equity: Some Policy Perspectives, Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting (


ICMA (2005), Active Living and Social Equity: Creating Healthy Communities for All Residents, International City/County Management Association ( and Active Living By Design (


ICLEI (1997), Uncovering Auto Subsidies: Calculating How Much Your Local Government Spends Subsidizing Cars, ICLEI (


Junfeng Jiao and Maxwell Dillivan (2013), “Transit Deserts: The Gap Between Demand and Supply,” Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 23-35; at


INFRAS and IWW (2004), External Costs of Transport – Update Study, Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies, and the International Union of Railways (


IMR (2009), Sprawl vs Transit Villages: Environment Justice Implications, Innovative Mobility (; at


Wenya Jia and Martin Wachs (1998), “Parking and Affordable Housing,” Access, Vol. 13, Fall 1998 (, pp. 22-25.


Joseph Jones and Fred Nix (1995), Survey of the Use of Highway Cost Allocation in Road Pricing Decisions, Transportation Association of Canada (


John Kain (1994), “Impacts of Congestion Pricing on Transit and Carpool Demand and Supply,” in Curbing Gridlock, TRB, National Academy Press (, p. 502-553.


Alex Karner and Deb Niemeier (2013), “Civil Rights Guidance And Equity Analysis Methods For Regional Transportation Plans: A Critical Review Of Literature And Practice,” Journal of Transport Geography, Vo. 33, pp. 126-134; at


C. Jotin Khisty (1997), “Operationalizing Concepts of Equity for Public Project Investment,” Transportation Research Record 1559 (, pp. 94-99.


KOTI (2011), Toward an Integrated Green Transportation System in Korea, Korea Transport Institute (


Ugo Lachapelle, et al. (2011), “Commuting by Public Transit and Physical Activity: Where You Live, Where You Work, and How You Get There,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health (, Vol. 8, Supplement 1, pp. S72-S82; at


LCEF (2011), Where We Need to Go: A Civil Rights Roadmap for Transportation Equity, Leadership Conference Education Fund, Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (; at


Douglass Lee (1987), “Making the Concept of Equity Operational,” Transportation Research Record 677 (, pp. 46-53.


Serena Lin (2008), Understanding Climate Change: An Equitable Framework, Policy Link (; at


Todd Litman (1996), “Using Road Pricing Revenue: Economic Efficiency and Equity Considerations,” Transportation Research Record 1558, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 24-28; at


Todd Litman (2000), Transportation Land Valuation; Evaluating Policies and Practices that Affect the Amount of Land Devoted to Transportation Facilities, VTPI (, 2000.


Todd Litman (2001), What’s It Worth? Life Cycle and Benefit/Cost Analysis for Evaluating Economic Value, Presented at Internet Symposium on Benefit-Cost Analysis, Transportation Association of Canada (; at VTPI (


Todd Litman (2002) “Evaluating Transportation Equity,” World Transport Policy & Practice (, Volume 8, No. 2, Summer, pp. 50-65; updated version at


Todd Litman (2003a), “Measuring Transportation: Traffic, Mobility and Accessibility,” ITE Journal (, Vol. 73, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 28-32,


Todd Litman (2004), Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs, VTPI (


Todd Litman (2005a), Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis Guidebook: Techniques, Estimates and Implications, VTPI (


Todd Litman (2005b), Socially Optimal Transport Prices and Markets, VTPI (; at


Todd Litman (2006), You CAN Get There From Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at; originally published as, “You Can Get There From Here: Evaluating Transportation Choice,” Transportation Research Record 1756, TRB (, 2001, pp. 32-41


Todd Litman (2007a), Community Cohesion As A Transport Planning Objective, Victoria Transport Policy Institute website (; at


Todd Litman (2007b), Transportation Affordability: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies, VTPI (; at


Todd Litman (2008), Celebrate (Transportation) Diversity!, Planetizen Blogs (; at


Todd Litman (2009), Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts, VTPI (; at


Todd Litman (2010), Affordable-Accessible Housing In A Dynamic City: Why and How To Support Development of More Affordable Housing In Accessible Locations, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (; at


Todd Litman (2012), Whose Roads? Defining Pedestrians and Bicyclists Right To Use Public Roadways, VTPI (


Todd Litman and Mark Brenman (2012), A New Social Equity Agenda For Sustainable Transportation, Paper 12-3916, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (; at


Todd Litman and Tom Rickert (2005), Evaluating Transit Accessibility: ‘Inclusive Design’ Performance Indicators For Public Transportation In Developing Countries, VTPI (; at

LSC (2001), Montana Rural Passenger Needs Study, Montana Department of Transportation (


Karen Lucas (2004), Running on Empty: Transport, Social Exclusion and Environmental Justice, Policy Press (; at


Darshini Mahadevia, Rutul Joshi and Abhijit Datey (2013), Low-Carbon Mobility in India and the Challenges of Social Inclusion: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Case Studies in India, CEPT University Centre for Urban Equity (, United Nations Environmental Program; at’s/BRT_Casestudies_India_fullreport.pdf.


Rebecca Mann (2011), Inclusive Transport: A Tool for Urban Projects, London School of Economics for the Asian Development Bank.


Karel Martens (2006), “Basing Transport Planning on Principles of Social Justice,” Berkeley Planning Journal, Volume 19 (


A. W. Marshall and I. Olkin (1997), Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Applications, Academic Press (New York).


Barbara McCann (2000), Driven to Spend; The Impact of Sprawl on Household Transportation Expenses, STPP (


Hugh Morris and John DeCicco (1997), “Extent to Which User Fees Cover Road Expenditures in the United States,” Transportation Research Record 1576, 1997, pp. 56-62.


NEPA (1998), What Is Social Impact Assessment?, Fact Sheet, General Service Administration (


Peter Newman and Jeff Kenworthy (1999), Sustainability and Cities; Overcoming Automobile Dependency, Island Press (Covelo;


Mary Ng (2005), Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission: An MPO’s Methodology Toward Equitable Accessibility And Involvement In Regional Planning, Presented at Racial Equity In Transportation Workshop, by the Harvard Civil Rights Project and the Brookings Institute, 13 January 2005, (


J.-P. Nicolas, P. Pochet and H. Poimboeuf (2003), “Towards Sustainable Mobility Indicators: Application To The Lyons Conurbation,” Transport Policy, Vol. 10 (, pp. 197-208.


Phuong Nguyen-Hoanga and Ryan Yeung (2010), “What is Paratransit Worth,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 44, Issue 10, December, pp. 841-853.


Olivier Bellefleur (2013), Urban Traffic Calming and Health Inequalities: Effects and Implications for Practice, National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy (; at


Clarissa Penfold, N. Cleghorn, C. Creegan, H. Neil and S. Webster (2008), Travel Behaviour, Experiences And Aspirations Of Disabled People, for the Department of Transport by The National Centre for Social Research (NatCen), Social Research in Transport Clearinghouse (; at


Rolf Pendall, et al. (2014), Driving to Opportunity: Understanding the Links among Transportation Access, Residential Outcomes, and Economic Opportunity for Housing Voucher Recipients, Urban Institute (; at


Alan Pisarski (2009), ULI Moving Cooler Report: Greenhouse Gases, Exaggerations and Misdirections, New Geography (; at


Stephanie Pollack, Liz Williams, Russ Lopez and Ivette Luna (2013), The Toll of Transportation, Dukakis Center for Urban & Regional Policy, Northeastern University (; at


James Poterba (1991), “Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive?”, Tax Policy and the Economy, MIT Press.


Race Poverty and the Environment Journal ( is a biannual national publication that provides analysis and solutions to environmental justice issues, including transportation equity issues.


Farideh Ramjerdi (2006), “Equity Measures and Their Performances in Transport,” Transportation Research Record 1983, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 67-74.


John Rawls (1971), A Theory of Justice, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (; at


Piet Rietveld (2003), “Winners and Losers in Transport Policy: On Efficiency, Equity and Compensation,” Handbook of Transport and the Environment, Elsevier, pp. 585-601.


Fiona Rajé (2003), Impacts Of Road User Charging/Workplace Parking Levy On Social Inclusion/Exclusion: Gender, Ethnicity And Lifecycle Issues, University Of Oxford Transport Studies Unit (


Lorien Rice (2004), Transportation Spending by Low-Income California Households: Lessons for the San Francisco Bay Area, Public Policy Institute of California (, 2004


Tom Rickert (1998), Mobility for All: Accessible Transportation Around the World, Access Exchange International (, Swedish Institute on Independent Living (


Glenn Robinson, et al. (2010),Building on the Strength of Environmental Justice in Transportation: Environmental Justice and Transportation Toolkit, Baltimore Region Environmental Justice in Transportation Project ( and the Office of Civil Rights, Federal Transit Administration.


Caroline Rodier, John E. Abraham, Brenda N. Dix and John D. Hunt (2010), Equity Analysis of Land Use and Transport Plans Using an Integrated Spatial Model, Report 09-08, Mineta Transportation Institute (; at


Sandra Rosenbloom and Alan Altshuler (1997), in “Equity Issues in Urban Transportation”, Policy Studies Journal, p. 29-39.


Thomas W. Sanchez (1999), “The Connection Between Public Transit and Employment,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 65, No. 3, Summer, pp. 284-296.


Thomas W. Sanchez, Rich Stolz and Jacinta S. Ma (2003), Moving Toward Equity: Addressing Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies On Minorities, Harvard Civil Rights Project and the Center For Community Change (; at


Thomas W. Sanchez and Marc Brenman (2007), The Right To Transportation: Moving To Equity, Planners Press (


Tomas Sanchez, Q. Shen and Z. Peng (2004), “Transit Mobility, Jobs Access and Low-income Labour Participation in US Metropolitan Areas,” Urban Studies, Vol. 41, No. 7, pp. 1313-1331; at


David Sawicki and Mitch Moody (2000), “Developing Transportation Alternatives for Welfare Recipients Moving to Work,” APA Journal, Vo. 66, No. 3, Summer, pp. 306-320.


K.H. Schaeffer and Elliot Sclar (1975), Access for All, Columbia University Press (New York;


Jan-dirk Schmocker, Mohammed A. Quddus, Robert Noland and Michael G. H. Bell (2005), “Estimating Trip Generation of Elderly and Disabled People: Analysis of London Data,” Transportation Research Record 1924, Transportation Research Board (, pp. 9-18.


Keith Schneider and Mac McClelland (2005), Follow The Money: Citizens Pay Heavy Price For State’s Sprawl Subsidies, Michigan Land Use Institute (


Lisa Schweitzer and Abel Valenzuela Jr. (2004), “Environmental Injustice and Transportation: The Claims and the Evidence,” Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 383-398.


Lisa Schweitzer and Brian Taylor (2008), “Just Pricing: The Distributional Effects Of Congestion Pricing And Sales Taxes,” Transportation, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 797–812 (; summarized in “Just Road Pricing,” Access 36 (; Spring 2010, pp. 2-7; at


SDC (2011), Fairness in a Car Dependent Society, Sustainable Development Commission (; at


Scott Sharpe and Paul Tranter (2010), “The Hope For Oil Crisis: Children, Oil Vulnerability And (In)Dependent Mobility,” Australian Planner, Vol. 47, No. 4, December, pp. 284-292; summary at


Donald Shoup (2005), The High Cost of Free Parking, Planners Press (

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Ken Small (1983), “The Incidence of Congestion Tolls on Urban Highways”, Journal of Urban Economics, December 1983, pp. 90-111.


Social Exclusion and Transport Website (, Dept. of Planning, University of Manchester.


Social Research in Transport (SORT) Clearinghouse ( is a repository of reports and links to research findings focused on social issues in transport.


Jamie E.L. Spinney, Darren M. Scott, and K. Bruce Newbold (2009), “Transport Mobility Benefits And Quality Of Life: A Time-Use Perspective Of Elderly Canadians,” Transport Policy, Vol. 16, Is. 1, January, pp. 1-11; at


John Stanley, David A. Hensher, Janet Stanley, Graham Currie, William H. Greene and Dianne Vella-Brodrick (2011). “Social Exclusion and the Value of Mobility,” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Vol. 45, (2), pp. 197-222; at and


Kerri Sullivan (2003), Transportation & Work: Exploring Car Usage and Employment Outcomes in the LSAL Data, NCSALL Occasional Paper (; at


Emily Talen and Julia Koschinsky (2013), Equality of Opportunity Project (EOP), Arizona State University; at


Marie Thynell (2009), Social Change and Urban Transport, Sustainable Urban Transit Technical Document #2, Sustainable Urban Transport Asia (; at


Geetam Tiwari (2014), Planning And Designing Transport Systems To Ensure Safe Travel For Women, Paper 2014-04, International Transport Forum (; at


TRB (2011), Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms, Special Report 303, Transportation Research Board (; at


TSG (2005), Measuring Accessibility as Experienced by Different Socially Disadvantaged Groups, Transport Studies Group – University of Westminster. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (


Toolkit for Social Exclusion & Transport (


TRISP (2005), “Distribution Of Benefits And Impacts On Poor People,” Economic Evaluation Notes, UK Department for International Development and the World Bank (; at Summarizes transport project evaluation methods suitable for developing country applications.


Geetam Tiwari (2014), Planning And Designing Transport Systems To Ensure Safe Travel For Women, Paper 2014-04, International Transport Forum (; at


VTPI (2005), Online TDM Encyclopedia, Victoria Transport Policy Institute (


University de Valladolid (2005), The Right to Mobility (El Derecho a la Movilidad), Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad de Valladolid; at


USEPA (2013), Creating Equitable, Healthy, And Sustainable Communities: Strategies For Advancing Smart Growth, Environmental Justice, And Equitable Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (; at


Martin Wachs and Brian Taylor (1998), “Can Transportation Strategies Help Meet the Welfare Challenge?” Journal of the American Planning Association, Winter. Vol. 64, Issue 1.


Martin Wachs (2003), Improving Efficiency and Equity in Transportation Finance, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institute (


Rania Wasfi and David M. Levinson (2007), The Transportation Needs of People with Developmental Disabilities, Report no. CTS 07-02, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota (; at


Asha Weinstein Agrawal (2011), Getting Around When You’re JustGetting By: The Travel Behavior and Transportation Expenditures of Low-Income Adults, Mineta Transportation Institute (; at


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D. Brad Wright (2008), “No Way to Go: A Review of the Literature on Transportation Barriers in Health Care,” World Transport Policy & Practice, Volume 14, Number 3 (, pp. 7-23; at


Chang Yi (2006), “The Impact of Public Transit on Employment Status: Disaggregate Analysis of Houston,” Transportation Research Record 1986 TRB (, pp. 137-144 (


– – > Click HERE for full 52 page report. (Further background from VTPI at

# # #

About the author:

Todd Litman is executive director of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute, an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transport problems. His work helps to expand the range of impacts and options considered in transportation decision-making, improve evaluation techniques, and make specialized technical concepts accessible to a larger audience. He can be reached at: 1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada. Email:

# # #

About the editor:

Eric Britton
13, rue Pasteur. Courbevoie 92400 France

Bio: Founding editor of World Streets (1988), Eric Britton is an American political scientist, teacher, occasional consultant, and sustainability activist who has observed, learned, taught and worked on missions and advisory assignments on all continents. In the autumn of 2019, he committed his remaining life work to the challenges of aggressively countering climate change and specifically greenhouse gas emissions emanating from the mobility sector. He is not worried about running out of work. Further background and updates: @ericbritton | | #fekbritton | | and | Contact: | +336 508 80787 (Also WhatApp) | Skype: newmobility.)

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3 thoughts on “Thinking on Equity/Transport: Todd Litman, Canada

  1. See Tom Sanchez and my book, “The Right to Transportation,” American Planning Association, 2007, for a thorough discussion of the topic of transportation equity.

  2. I suggest geogrpahical transport funding transfer as an equity component. There is little fine-grain data on this. I did an analysis for New York State in 1979 that did a county level analysis of all transport cash flows (for the President, City Council of New York). It showed what would be expected: There was a net transfer OUT of the largest metro regions to small and rural counties. This relates to policies to invest in low-volume highways, tending to favor riral and exurban auto transport. The transfers take from urban programs, and so the investments in transit.

    Gary Nelson


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