Carsharing on the rise in the Netherlands (Act 3)

Thanks to the Dutch Kennisplatform Verkeer en Vervoer (KpVV) (which I roughly translate to the Knowledge Platform for Traffic and Transportation) for this excellent update (June 2013) on the situation for carsharing in the Netherlands. It is part of a series entitled “Trends and developments in the field of sustainable and smart mobility”. The numbers are interesting and tell a story, and their analysis is first-class. Recommended reading and in the hope that we shall shortly be able to share with our readers similar country reports and updates of the state of car sharing in other countries, both in Europe and beyond.

Translation Note: Raw Dutch/English translation from Google, quickly modified for smoother (if demonstrably imperfect)

Rapid rise of carsharing in the Netherlands

Source: June 2013

In March 2013 there were some 5275 shared cars in the Netherlands. Compared to 2012, a growth of 86 percent. The offer has never grown so fast. This growth is mainly due to the rise of peer-2-peer car sharing. In addition, individuals share their car with others through online communities. This form of shared cars also catching on in the countryside. Now can be found in three-quarters of all municipalities. Shared cars Trend watchers, scientists and the automobile industry have dashing expectations about the development of car sharing. This dashboard puts developments in a row.


From rural to big city: everywhere to show an upward trend. The growth in the number of car sharing is strongest in the large cities. Amsterdam is the city with most car sharing. As the demand grew slower than last year. Car2Go when its appearance in the capital.



Peer-2-peer car sharing is growing rapidly. This type of car sharing, with their own private car through a provider hiring, begun in 2011 in the Netherlands. The number of cars using peer-2-peer forms of learning, is now greater than the number of ‘classic’ car sharing. For peer-2-peer carsharing is no investment required in new cars. This makes possible rapid growth in many places. Also having no procedures to be followed to obtain a reserved parking space. Additionally often occurs a snowball effect: as auto start somewhere, more and more people come into contact. Also on offer is growing, which in turn generates more choice.

The ‘classic’ car sharing, where providers manage a fleet of shared cars, remains stable. Although this dashboard does not address the use of car sharing, it is likely that the use is significantly higher than in peer-2-peer car sharing.

In one-way car sharing your cock somewhere a shared car. In the place of destination you leave it. In the Netherlands this form only exists in Amsterdam, where it offers Car2Go 300 electric smarts since 2011.


The data in this dashboard go over these three types of car sharing. Other forms, such as pool cars, subscriptions to landlords and private forms of car sharing are not included. Carsharing makes car use declines and fewer cars are needed which saves raw materials and parking. An overview of all types of car sharing can be found in this table .

How green is car sharing?

What is a shared car?
With the emergence of new forms of auto demand is increasingly important as a part car. In this dashboard are included:
– Some cars owned by a provider (eg Greenwheels or Car2Go)
– Cars (myWheels or SnappCar eg) offered through an online platform. Sometimes that’s just one day a week, or even just in the holiday.
– Mutually shared cars that can be, although not used by anyone but part of a system (e.g. SnappClubs Shared or through the Association Car use.

Not included are:
– Pool cars by companies (here, the KpVV no data)
– P2P shared cars registered outside the systems.

Data Accountability:
The data in this dashboard are collected as follows:
– The classical providers supply counted as mentioned on their websites
– At peer2peer requested his data from the providers. Counting from their sites is not possible, because those sites only on a specific day view the offer.

Availability of car sharing
According to the consumer’s car sharing an interesting concept. For consumers, it is nice that there are various providers with their own formula. So there is choice in quality and price. According to the union, the availability of car sharing the biggest problem. That availability is getting better. Particularly through peer-2-peer car sharing car sharing is also available in small centers, where it is uneconomic to exploit. Part classic cars

In 309 of the 408 municipalities carsharing is found. Part one or more cars In 2012 there were still only 146. In almost all moderately to highly urbanized municipalities you can find shared cars In non-urban and few municipalities the percentage of municipalities with car sharing rose from 14 percent to 65 percent. If this trend by turn, it will not be long before all the municipalities in the Netherlands have one or more shared cars. The next milestone is that each core or district has a shared car.


The map images show how car sharing has developed in recent years ( download here).




Wadden Islands in part auto top 10
The emergence of peer-2-peer carsharing also put the top 10 on its head. Three Wadden Islands are now in the top 10 to find, with Vlieland on 1. The top 10 is based on the density of car sharing, making small municipalities can score high. Amsterdam, Utrecht and Bunnik remain high score. The Wadden expel Leiden, Wood and Zutphen from the top 10.

This year we show for the first time an absolute top 10. It can be deduced that the G4 to top stand. Utrecht is doing significantly better than The Hague and Rotterdam. The G4 is followed by Haarlem, Groningen and Amersfoort.

In 2012 the KpVV listed the 10 largest municipalities without auto on. In all these municipalities can now be found. Part one or more cars

Overview section >> cars by town

The Province of North Holland Province has most shared cars, mostly thanks to Amsterdam. South Holland and Utrecht were tight for many for years. Now that the numbers of shared cars in Rotterdam and The Hague is growing sharply, South Holland leaves the much smaller province of Utrecht behind

The coverage of municipalities with one of more shared cars is highest in the provinces of Drenthe Utrecht ( (both 83 percent). Limburg and Flevoland are the laggards respectively with 43 and 33 percent coverage.


Shared cars compared to …

A growth of 86 percent in one year is very striking. But the total number of shared cars in the Netherlands relative to the total number of cars is but a drop in the ocean: there are 1500 “normal” cars on the road for each shared car. . How does car sharing stack up with other forms of mobility?

  • There are about as many shared bicycles as shared cars in the Netherlands
  • There are about as many shared cars as electric cars
  • There are about 3 times as many shared cars as cars using natural gas / green gas
  • There are seven times as many taxis than carshare vehicles
  • There are 13 times more rental cars than shared cars.
  • There are 135 times more lease cars than shared cars.

But, and this is worth keep[ing in mind, none of the others are growing as fast.

Striking too is the big difference and attention and money that the government invests in electric vehicles in relation to car sharing.



Young people and car ownership

In previous editions we mentioned that young people in German, U.S. and Japanese cities less attached to owning a car. The KiM examined whether this trend also lives in the Netherlands and finds that the car is used less among young people. Figures from Statistics Netherlands show that also hold down.

According to the CBS, the number of passenger cars among young people aged 18 to 25 years for two years in a row. The number of young people increased from 2012 to 2013 by 0.4 percent, while the number of registered passenger cars in this group declined by 4.5 percent. More information: CBS and .

Attract more young people to the city. In the city the use and possession of a car is ess attractive, and with public transport, cycling or car sharing a better alternative than outside the city. For cities provides that perspective, because that is where car ownership (parking) and car (quality of life, environment and congestion) presents several problems.

It is not known whether young people in cities actually attach lesson importance to car ownership than before. If this is the case, provides that perspective, because that is where car ownership (parking) and car (quality of life, environment and congestion) presents several problems. Moreover, there is also opposite trends , among certain groups, such as ethnic minority youth. There take the car ownership increases. The mobility policy in cities could respond to groups that are susceptible to less car ownership. For example, housing projects without parking.

Sharing vs. ownership
In any case, there is a trend of property to use. The sub-economy (English: collaborative consumption) printed quickly. A good example is Spotify. Previously owned by a large CD collection something you were proud of and something you could derive your identity. With Spotify is no longer necessary to own a collection because you have access to all the music. People choose other increasingly common alternative links outside the complex systems. Rachel Botsman, guru in the economy section provides an enormous growth of companies and organizations that cater to these trends. See her TEDx presentation:  Car sharing is  promising, because it is possible to have a car to use when needed, without owning a car.

More about the international trend of demotorization :

KpVV-12Development car ownership by age group.


There are different types of car sharing (see table ):

  • the classical form of car sharing
  • one-way carsharing
  • peer-2-peer car sharing
  • pool cars (ditto classic, but business use)
  • subscription with a car rental
  • private car sharing.

An important distinction is whether the provider has its own fleet, or that the supplier is a ‘market’ offers to share cars. The first group is also called asset-based car-sharing ‘, the second group of peer-2-peer car sharing.

The data in this dashboard relate to the first three forms.

Classic shared cars
Providers: Greenwheels, ConnectCar, myWheels (partly), Drive, StudentCar, CareCar

Greenwheels growing steadily. Pon has an interest in Greenwheels since 2012. Not surprisingly, the Peugeotjes gradually give way to VW’s Up.

The supply of ConnectCar is decreasing. Also myWheels (formerly Wheels4all) manages some cars. This number remains virtually unchanged.

Then there are some smaller providers. Drive appears to be small. StudentCar focuses specifically on students. Various service providers refuse this group, because of the higher accident and damage risk of young drivers. The number of Shared cars StudentCar is incidentally dropped. Diks car had some part in Amsterdam cars, but has stopped this service.

New CareCar is that Maastricht has an electric car stand. Buzz also focuses on ‘electric’. Hum, that myWheels works, has in Den Bosch electric car and electric scooter part.

One-way carsharing
Supplier: Car2Go

Car2Go is the only provider in the Netherlands with this formula. Car2Go has placed 300 electric Smarts in 2011 in Amsterdam. (See article from 2012 ). This year the municipality assesses the experiences. The municipality has a strong interest in, because electric mobility contributes to solving local problems with air quality.

In Germany there is an estimate of the effects of Car2Go in Ulm. Although it is difficult to obtain accurate data TU Dresden suspect a shift from private cars to shared cars. This year evaluation of DriveNow place in Munich. To ensure that positive social effects, particularly researcher Udo Becker recommends that simultaneously with the introduction of one-way carsharing public parking take away. This is to prevent that released parking space is filled by new drivers and thus ultimately have a negative effect occurs.

Peer-2-peer car sharing
Providers: SnappCar, myWheels and WeGo

In peer-2-peer car sharing, anyone can rent their own car. The range is enormous: new and old, big and small and from convertibles to camper.

MyWheels offers both shared cars in-house as private cars. There are myWheels cars you with your chip card can open. 24h The private portion cars owner and tenant meet for the keys. Also in SnappCar works that way.

SnappCar also offers SnappClubs, in which friends and acquaintances to share their car. MyWheels manages a database of private car owners who join the Association as car sharing car dealer. With this membership, they can in several municipalities, including The Hague and Utrecht have a parking permit, which they can park. park in two sectors In the Netherlands 430 cars fall below (The Hague: 162, Utrecht: 65).

Via myWheels you can also use a public bike. MyWheels is a non-profit organization that strives for an open standard for car sharing. Other Parties may cooperate, so much choice to offer people. Examples include Buzz car sharing, and the local initiative is cost car sharing’ in Zeeland Flanders (see box). Also manages These cars are as peer-2-peer counted in myWheels.

Incidentally, some people enroll in both platforms, leaving limited case of double registrations.

WeGo finally, this spring will start up. WeGo expected to roll. Their system this year While writing this dashboard the new site wrong still in beta version. Difference SnappCar and myWheels is that part of WeGo cars are equipped with an onboard computer so that tenants can open without the owner the car.

Automotive and public transport sectors are responding to auto


The automotive industry plays proactive in the rise of car sharing. Car manufacturers develop systems like Car2Go. More information about The car industry plays in there. So recently changed its name to BOVAG Rental BOVAG Rental and Shared car . According to BOVAG grow various mobility concepts to each other: lease, short lease (lease is that over a short period), car rental and car sharing. Many companies already have subscriptions to hire themselves or pool cars for their employees. Several rental companies are experimenting with systems for individuals, employers are already the largest market. Hertz on Demand has in several countries a system where you can rent a car with a newly open. SnappCar with Athlon develops a concept for sharing lease cars. Mu by Peugeot has a concept of multimodality including rental bicycles. In the Netherlands this concept incidentally proved unsuccessful. The largest car sharing provider in the United States, ZipCar, was recently purchased by AVIS. Last year Pon acquired an interest in Greenwheels. Since April 2013 Pon works with VW to roll out the business model of Greenwheels Europe.

Public transport and car sharing
Who thinks of public and car sharing, quickly think of the Greenwheels cars at train stations. However, the car as part egress (1) is only one form. There are more possible combinations:

(2) car sharing as an alternative to public transport in rural areas
(3) combination of car sharing and public transport

Ad 1 & 2: The public transport sector sees itself facing major challenges such as the increasing cuts. This spring suggested carriers and passenger organizations a manifesto with innovative initiatives and plans for cooperation between carriers and other parties. So come with auto pilots in urban and rural areas. This is how the Greater Rotterdam carrying pilots to improve pre-and post, including the shared car. In the country wants to promote the public transport sector initiatives with some cars, bicycle and private bus systems (see KpVV publication ‘ private initiatives in the passenger ).

Ad 3: This is not about the shared car in the chain movement, but choosing the most convenient means of transport for a journey. The one time it’s convenient public transportation, such as a movement in the city. Another time you might prefer the car. By public transport and car sharing to market jointly and offer. Combination packs The latter is still unknown in the Netherlands. In Belgium, Germany but also in Italy, for example here is just focusing on. The urban transport company of Hanover offers a combination card for public transport, car sharing and taxi. This card also offers discounts on the train and on the use of lockers. A trial of 1,000 travelers revealed that 33% of the car sharers purchased the card. For the city was the carrier business case positive. Hanover recently introduced a monthly pass for all journeys by public transport, taxi and car sharing are settled monthly. Afterwards

Zeeland: car sharing = cost sharing

In 2011, an initiative started in the region of Zeelandic Flanders. In small towns there are few alternatives to the private car. The project car sharing = sharing costs encourages the use of car sharing in these towns. Private car shaping complements the collective transport. It contributes to a better access to the countryside, where many people own a second car.

There are now 17 peer-2-peer car sharing of myWheels in Breskens, Graauw, Hulst, IJzendijke, Kapellebrug, Lamswaarde, Nieuw-Namen en Terneuzen. . The project is supported by, among others, the province of Zeeland (the authority for demand responsive transport services) and the municipalities of Hulst, Sluis and Terneuzen. The stimulus funds from the local Rabobanks, Woongoed Zeelandic Flanders and the European Union support the project. Since the project has started up, the focus shifts to the growth of the number of car

Features: smartphones, smartcard & electric car sharing

Smartphones, apps and smart card
With your smartphone to find the nearest car sharing, books and open the door? You can! By capitalizing on the latest technical possibilities, car sharing is becoming cooler and hipper. That is not only fun and convenient, it is also necessary to respond to the generation of young people who are interested in car sharing. On ConnectCar all major providers an app cars along books. For some providers, it is even possible to open the door. With your smartphone

Greenwheels and myWheels also have a link with the smart card. Customers who have a chip, can only open the car with this part. Most peer-2-peer providers do not consciously choose the technique, but for personal keys. Such a personal encounter is pleasant for both landlord and tenant. Though there are also disadvantages: someone must be home for the keys. There may also be solutions, such as key cabinets with a code etc.

Electric car sharing
6% (373) of the electric cars in the Netherlands, part car. Most of them are of Car2Go, that Amsterdam has 300 electric Smarts. Various service providers that provide electric car’s not profitable to make. The electric car’s Greenwheels, myWheels (Buzz) and CareCar are funded by government subsidy. Electric cars are not subject to car sharing ‘green’: some cars are inherently cleaner than the average car, because they are newer and smaller . Interesting is that owners of electric cars can share it. So has SnappCar about 44 electric car sharing. Who electric car sharing, shorten the payback.


What is the role of government in the field of car sharing? And she has a role at all? Because auto is developing rapidly, without the government there to send.

The KpVV publication ” Choosing auto ‘gives an answer to this question. There is a market with providers and will seek to ‘business’. Since the government does not send it. There may even be market disruption, when governments favor a specific party, for example subsidies.

At the same time auto many social benefits, such as:

  • less parking pressure
  • less space
  • less emissions
  • improvement in the quality of life
  • more social cohesion among neighbors / car divisors
  • alternative to public transport in rural areas
  • lower car dependency
  • lower energy consumption.

Governments and municipalities in particular have so much interest in car sharing growing. The example of Amsterdam shows that active government policy on car sharing car sharing helps to get faster and better from the ground without compromising other (parking) interests.

Municipalities that encourage car sharing, promoting a development that increasingly meet the needs of groups of residents. With encouraging car sharing can make visible communities that we work on sustainable mobility and a sustainable society. This does not have to cost. Little time and money.

Municipalities can provide:

  • a good place for shared cars in the parking
  • good agreements with providers (see Amsterdam )
  • smooth provision of reserved parking
  • Offering a parking for several sectors for private car owners
  • active communication and information to citizens.

Car sharing can help to achieve lower parking standards or to realize. More green space and play areas Strenger parking, eg for the second car, promotes car sharing. For example, the city of Utrecht a campaign for auto run, and the rates for the second parking doubled.

According to researcher Udo Becker of TU policy makers need to . . .


  • car-free lifestyles
  • walking, cycling, public transport, the new work
  • all types of car sharing
  • cooperation between providers of car sharing and transport
  • communication with citizens
  • more place in public green space and recreational facilities


  • Free parking
  • 2nd parking
  • parking in public space

The city of Utrecht investigated which target groups are open to car sharing. Read the summary of their research .

# # #

This is to thank Friso Metz of the Kennisplatform Verkeer en Vervoer (KpVV) for kindly sharing this update on car sharing in the Netherlands with our readers. I was discussing in the last days  an earlier draft of this article with some of my international colleagues working in the sector; it turns out that several of them have indicated their interest to provide updates on the car sharing situation in their countries. We await these with real interest.

Eric Britton
13, rue Pasteur. Courbevoie 92400 France

Bio: Founding editor of World Streets (1988), Eric Britton is an American political scientist, teacher, occasional consultant, and sustainability activist who has observed, learned, taught and worked on missions and advisory assignments on all continents. In the autumn of 2019, he committed his remaining life work to the challenges of aggressively countering climate change and specifically greenhouse gas emissions emanating from the mobility sector. He is not worried about running out of work. Further background and updates: @ericbritton | | #fekbritton | | and | Contact: | +336 508 80787 (Also WhatApp) | Skype: newmobility.)

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